Full Chisel Blog

March 31, 2010

Remarks on Colour

Filed under: Finishing,Historical Material,Of Interest,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 2:23 pm

Not to be confused with the seminal work of the same name by Ludwig Wittgenstein, the twentieth century philosopher/woodworker, a work I suggest if you are interested in an in-depth discussion.  Goethe’s Theory of Colours did the first systematic physiological analysis of colors in 1810.

Just a little thought about color and some problems that might be encountered.  Here is a classic color wheel, showing the primary colors, red, yellow and blue with the secondary colors, orange, green and purple placed accordingly.  The red is at your 10 o’clock, yellow at 2 o’clock and blue at your 6 o’clock.  Those of you without an analog clock are just out of luck. 

And if you think you know your colors, I suggest you take the Ishihara color blindness test before proceeding.  A higher percentage of men are afflicted with red/green color deficiencies and have a hard time determining colors, get a second opinion or ask a woman.

 Do you see a 5 or a 2?

Mixing adjacent primary colors gives the secondary colors and because of the arrangement of the color wheel, those colors opposite are said to be complimentary colors.  They are also colors that negate each other, in other words if a paint or finish is too red then adding green will cancel the red.  To keep varnish from yellowing with age a bit of purple can be added.

You may notice that two ‘colors’ are missing, white which is the absence of all color and black which is all of my favorite colors.  In painting and finishing we are talking about additive reflective colors [not subtractive refractive colors] and white is added to lighten the hue or tint of the color and black is added to darken the hue or tint.

Then there is chromatic intensity, how bright the color is and how much color the given sample has is color saturation.  There are opaque colors that completely cover the substrate and transparent colors that allow what is underneath to show through.

Then there is how the colors are viewed; under some artificial light like fluorescent, the colors will shift and not appear as they will in natural light.  Color corrected lighting can help ameliorate this problem, as can working in natural light.

The human eye can also be tricked as is apparent with tromp l’oeil as well as other physiological effects.  I can paint an area with dots of red paint interspersed with dots of blue paint and the overall effect to the eye will be a purple area.

Some colors will ‘set off’ other colors, by surrounding a color with another or placing it next to another color will cause different effects, that is why some colors go with other colors.  One color can be changed by putting on a transparent glaze of another color, even covering a color with a ‘clear’ glaze will alter its optical appearance.

A matt finish will look to be a lighter color than a gloss finish which will appear darker if both finishes are of the same color to begin with.  So if you have a problem with a customer not liking a color, have them take the color blindness test first.


March 25, 2010

Cooking Blue Spruce Resin

Filed under: Finishing,Historical Material,Of Interest — Stephen Shepherd @ 8:51 am

Last fall I collected about 4 ounces of oozing sap from about a half a dozen Colorado Blue Spruce [Picea pungens] where I work seasonally.  Was largely a sticky job as some of the sap was fresh and some had a bit of a crust.  Well the other day I found my small crucibles and picked the tears and pieces of sap, removing as much foreign matter, e.g. bark and needles.  I then warmed the crucible up over my alcohol lamp and when it was molten I picked out the flotsam and allowed it to cool.

I then heated it up again, removed more debris and allowed it to cool.  I ended up heating it up three times because I didn’t have all of the particulates and then let it cool and the above photograph is how it looked after its last heating, cleaning and cooling cycle.  It started out as a sticky pile of sap and with each heating it became harder and harder.  I will heat it up one more time and pour it into cold water to make tears and drops that can be easily ground up into a fine powder.  This I will incorporate it in a batch of oil varnish.  It looks quite dark when it is deep but when it is a thin coat of varnish it will be a very light amber color.

During one of the heats I was holding both the alcohol lamp and a wire holder for the crucible in my hands when there was a flash from my alcohol lamp and I nearly dropped everything, I thought the resin had ignited but it was the alcohol lamp as I could feel little droplets of alcohol on the hand holding the lamp.  I have no idea what caused it to flash, perhaps it is not properly vented, any ideas?

Next time I cook some resin it will be in my new Tingry Varnish Furnace, picking it up this weekend.  Also getting an alembic and cucurbit and some pipkins.  This varnish making is fun but I am getting a few too many bottles of varnish, need to find more bottles or figure out what to do with all the stuff.  May have to start selling the varnish, the only problem is shipping.


March 24, 2010

The Workbench

Filed under: Historical Material,Of Interest,Proper Tools,The Trade,Workbench — Stephen Shepherd @ 7:18 am

The Workbench

Much attention has been given lately about various historical iterations of the trusty workbench, that stalwart of the workshop, that one tool necessary to get any woodworking done.  There are detailed original engravings showing every type of workbench and most of them are complex with fancy joinery and a variety of ‘improvements’ included on each.

I for one was caught up in the fray and have built about 10 benches in 40 years; I only built one with the useless tool tray and have converted two benches with trays to useful benches by removing the useless tool tray abyss from the workbench top.

The last bench I built was one of the simplest designs and if I were to build another it would be even simpler.   A couple of the benches were quite nice and I was apprehensive to use it, so I sold it and built another that didn’t have that problem and I used it for several years.  I have seen benches built by folks that looked like a piece of furniture made out of fancy hardwoods with a high gloss finish and were quite very impressive.  I think the first time a sharp chisel went into the bench top the owners went apoplectic.

There are even books written about workbenches and on woodworking forums there is always a thread about the latest efforts to build the ‘perfect’ workbench.  I enjoy some of them because it is them doing the work and not me.  I don’t think there is a perfect workbench but there are several that approach perfection, sort of like the search for the ‘ideal chair’, the search continues.

When researching old probate inventories and other historical records; workbenches are mentioned and occasionally priced and much to my surprise the workbench or bench was listed for very little money.  If the list included a bench vise it was always much more expensive than the bench.  The books that mention building a bench the description is quite simple, left rough everywhere but the top.  Books also mention buying second hand benches.

And the value of these benches, were from $0.05 to 0.375, which is not much even in nineteenth century dollars, a skilled craftsman would make about $1.50 a day.  The cost of a workbench was less than a glue pot.  Of course there are some surviving workbenches that would have more value, but by and large it was just another tool and not much time or effort was wasted on making a bench when it was much more important to get to work to make things that could make money.  And that is the difference between then and now.

Today we can take inordinate amounts of time on building a workbench because most of the people doing this kind of woodworking are not making their living doing woodwork.  Not that there is anything wrong with this, I like workbenches and have my opinions as to what contributes to a good workbench, like a top made of softer wood so as not to damage the work being done on the workbench, &c. 

I think a lot of people decide to build the fanciest bench they can find and don’t really think about what they will actually be doing on that bench.  Many of them then realize when their bench is finished that they never use the tail vise and most regret the tool tray, etc.  When building a workbench consider what you need to get done and build a workbench that will accomplish those goals.


March 22, 2010

Shellac, one of the top three finishes [again]

Filed under: Finishing,Historical Material,Of Interest,Techniques,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 7:14 am

From Feb 4, 2010:

Shellac, one of the top three finishes
from Full Chisel Blog by Stephen Shepherd

Shellac is a particularly unusual finish with ancient origins. First used centuries ago, its initial use was as a dye stuff but then when mixed with alcohol made a fine spirit finish. Used as a substitute for real oriental lacquer, it is also a thermoplastic cement used to hold stones while grinding or for stopping, an excellent finish called French polish is extremely high gloss, the first hair spray and a food grade called ‘confectioner’s glaze’ makes candy and pastries shiny.

Lac Bug

During the 17th century in Europe it became a popular finish and the first books on its use were published. It was all imported from the east, mostly India, it is still being produced as it has been for millennia. There have been attempts to synthesize shellac but to no avail. A small [the size of an apple seed] female insect Lacca Lucifera, it flies to a fig or acacia tree, finds a suitable branch and settles in. A small needle like mouth pierces the branch of the tree and sucks out sap. It then exudes [read poops] a red sticky substance and gets stuck, where it sits and sucks and poops. At the end of the cycle, the bug lays what is reportedly a thousand eggs and dies. The youngsters hatch, dine on their dead mother then bore their way through the shellac and move on to another tree. Trees are given a few years in between the infestation to allow the trees to recuperate.

At this point the shellac is harvested by cutting of the small branches and scraping away all of the residue, mostly shellac but with some twig parts and bug parts. Stick-lac is the crudest [read unrefined] form of shellac followed by seed-lac (no stick, but still small woody parts). It is then placed in cheesecloth bags and heated over a fire until it becomes slightly liquid, the bag is twisted and the shellac is squeezed out filtering out the bug parts and twigs. It is formed into round drops called button-lac and sold in that form. Further processing by heating the shellac and pouring it over a large pottery cylinder shaped jar, then warmed in front of a fire and stretched into large thin sheets, which is broken up to make flake shellac. It can also be bleached to make a lighter colored shellac called blond.

De-waxing shellac is a popular idea at the moment and it is suggested that the naturally occurring wax interferes with modern finishes. It doesn’t seem to interfere with traditional finishes and there is little evidence that this was done traditionally. I personally think this is a waste of time and shellac, the best parts are what settle out, I always mix it up before use. I think it also contributes to a French polish finish, a simple method of applying shellac with a pad and produces an extremely high shine.

If you don’t mix up your own, which is very easy, you can also buy commercially available shellac in a can, it comes in orange or white [bleached] and is a fine finish providing it is thinned at least 50% with alcohol. Alcohol is the only solvent for shellac, although it will melt at high temperature. There is a standard called X pound cut, indicating the [X] number of pounds of shellac per gallon of alcohol. Three pound cut being common, it is way too thick to use and must be thinned. Several thinner coats are much better than one thick coat. I have no idea of the pound cut of the shellac I use but I imagine it is around a quarter pound cut, meaning one quarter pound of shellac to one gallon of alcohol and this works fine for me.

Shellac is reversible, so it is great for restoration work, it is all natural and comes from a renewable resource and is non toxic, although the denatured alcohol is, I use pure straight grain alcohol, just in case. It is easy to use and if you mess up it can be removed. Pigments can be added to the shellac to make a glaze and I even make fast drying paint by adding more pigments. Shellac is a great finish for woodworking and among the top three woodworking finishes.

Again I would like to thank Michael D. for saving the original posts that mysteriously vanished.


March 18, 2010

Early American Spinning Wheel


I am not sure the exact number but I would imagine I have repaired nearly a hundred spinning wheels, not to mention clock reels, kniddy-knoddies, bobbins, whorls and fliers, &c. And I really enjoy the challenge because all of these needed to be restored to usable condition. Although several are just sitting looking pretty in someones home, most of them are made to use.

I feel the same way about old tools they were made to be used and if no abused can last for several lifetimes. This particular wheel probably dates from the early 1800’s and was very well made. It has been used and in later life suffered a bit, but I am putting it in good order.

There are several ways to repair a flyer, the U shaped part that plies the yarn to the bobbin. I have repaired fractures with pegs and also with wire, I contemplated doing that to this one, but because the fracture was near the mandrel, I decided against pegs and the wire repair just didn’t seem right in this instance. So I decided to do something completely different.

I have shown pictures of the repairs in progress to the whorl and bobbin, here they are completed. The whorl fracture has been glued back together after some work to the joint. The metal mandrel had caused the wood to swell and it the maple break. I had to carve away some wood in order to get the break back together again, then glued with hide glue and allowed to sit overnight.

This repair I deemed causing the least amount of damage to the original and is easily reversed, unlike some other repairs I have ran into in my career. I cut two small pieces of very thick maple veneer and prepared the surface for gluing by gently scraping off the finish just where the external splines will be glued with hide glue.

Hide glue doesn’t stick to old finishes, which can come in handy for most repairs, but because this is a finished area I removed and roughened the old wood underneath to accept the glue. I glued the maple splines with the grain going across the repaired crack in the flyer.

I noticed that I still need to repair a strut on the upright and I completely forgot I have to make a pitman to replace the metal rod replacement. Hope to get that done today.

I would like to thank Michael D. for saving the text of the original post, to which I have added these photographs and have finished the wheel.


March 14, 2010

Where did Antonio Stradivarius buy his varnish?

Filed under: Finishing,Of Interest,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 2:03 pm


I doubt Stradivarius and all other luthiers of the time period [18th century] made their own varnish.  I wouldn’t be surprised that some of them sent their instruments out to be finished.  If they didn’t then they bought the best local varnish available and who what that from?  I would guess that it was from the local carriage maker, they had the best varnish.  Cabinet makers of the period would frequently purchase varnish already mixed up, in larger cities they would have sent their furniture out to be varnished.

The Painter, Gilder and Varnisher made their own paints and varnishes because that was their business and while they could purchase it already mixed up and ready to use, it was a matter of economy as well as tradition.  It was cheaper to make up their own because of the large quantity they went through.  Making varnish is a bit tricky and requires specialized equipment and unique materials, so unless you were in the business of using it every day, you simply didn’t make your own.

This is true for all of the other trades, so it makes sense that musical instrument makers, the bulk of their work is making the instrument, investing in the tools and wood, etc., to make their instruments and would spend little time [compared to construction] in the finish of their instruments.  Making a small amount of varnish still requires a great deal of time, some varnishes need to age for months before they were used and time is money.  It was more in their financial interest to invest their time in making their instruments, not varnish.

The legendary Vernice Martin, considered the finest furniture varnish ever made was produced by the Martin brothers [particularly Robert] in the 18th century for varnishing the carriages they made.  They found they could make more money making furniture and using their varnish [and selling it as well] and the rest is history.

If you want to know what the mysterious varnish was on these lovely instruments, find out what kind of varnish was used on wagons in Cremona.


March 12, 2010

Making Paint [again]

Filed under: Finishing,Historical Material,Of Interest,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 3:10 pm

Due to the fact that a month of my blog was erased, this post, which I hope is not offensive will be reposted. 

Making Paint

“using the best materials, and

executed in a workman-like manner,” 


Furniture has been painted for centuries [never with milk], the earliest modern reference I have found is 1225.  People today think that it is a near crime to paint fine wood, but you need to remember that our ancestors were surrounded by wood.  Living in the largest mixed mesophytic climax forest in the hemisphere was overwhelming at times.  Trees were cut and burned to open land for farming and many of the trees were too large to harvest for lumber, they wouldn’t fit in the saw mills.  Most of their homes were made of wood, everything around them was wood so painting furniture and woodwork brought a little color and variety into their lives. They needed a break from wood and chose to paint their woodwork and furniture.  Painting was done on Windsor and Hitchcock chairs to cover up the fact that they were constructed of different woods.  An elm seat with hickory spindles and beech legs gets a uniform appearance by painting a solid color.  In the nineteenth century ‘fancy painted chairs’ were popular and many fine polychrome examples have survived with dramatic coloring, stencils and stringing all painted on the wooden framework of the chairs.

It costs extra to paint furniture, so it was a conscious choice to cover the natural grain of the wood with an opaque colored finish.  It was considered more cosmopolitan and sophisticated to have painted furniture and that is reflected in the premium price that was charged for adding paint.  Careless stripping old furniture of its aged paint to reveal the ‘beauty of knotty pine’ destroys forever the intentions of the originating craftsman and can reduce the price of these antiques by 80%.  That’s right 80% of the value of an antique is in that old, cracked and crazed painted finish.  It’s alright to paint furniture.

Paint is a mixture of a vehicle (solvent), a binder (linseed oil) and pigment.  There are other additives that were included, sometimes following traditional formulae and sometimes from the experience of the painter. Painters, polishers and finishers were separate trades during the nineteenth century in larger cities.  In smaller more remote locations the woodworker would have to paint their own work.

Paint in the nineteenth century was sold by the pound indicating that it was in powdered pigment form, not a ready to use liquid.  One pound of red lead is about a third the volume of one pound of burnt umber pigment. It was then mixed up according to the user by adding linseed oil and turpentine and other ingredients to make an opaque covering.  Most ‘paint’ is a mixture of varnish and pigment, with more varnish it becomes glossy and is referred to as ‘enamel’.

The paint that was sold was very finely ground earth pigments, some innocuous and others insidious. Care should be used when working with these pigments while they are in the powdered form.  And some like vermillion (mercury disulfate) and lead (Pb) can be dangerous even when bound up in the vehicle. For very detailed work like fine art oil paintings, the painter would sometimes grind their pigments again in linseed oil with a muller and plate, producing much finer pigments required for this work.

I do, on a regular basis, make ‘paint’ using liquid shellac with a sufficient amount of powdered pigments to produce an opaque finish.  One advantage of this technique is that it dries instantly, works for restoration, touch-ups and for curatorial considerations is reversible.  I have used it as a base coat for painting and graining, but isolate it with a coat of oil or varnish to prevent the over graining, if alcohol based, from solving the base coat.  The amount of shellac will determine the luster of the finish, less produces a matt or satin finish and more will produce a shiner finish.  A fast drying paint can be an advantage when a finishing room is not available or there is a chance of airborne dust or if you are impatient.  I thought I came up with this, but after researching the subject for this work I discovered that it has an historic precedence.  Not as durable as oil paint but works fine if protected by a good oil varnish.

Mixing paint can be a simple process depending upon the recipe.  Some old formulations require heating, straining, mixing and aging, others are simple mixes of oil varnish and pigment.  One characteristic of old paint and shop made paint is the fact that the pigments can settle out of the solution and accumulating on the bottom of the container.  The pigment is suspended in the oil varnish and gravity can separate the heavier bodied pigments causing them to precipitate from the liquid.

I mix up batches of paint as I need them and try and make just enough for the job.  It is possible to store extra paint and I will discuss that later.  Traditionally containers made of glazed pottery were common and inexpensive.  Jars, pots and pipkins made of heavily glazed pottery, red ware should have a heavy glaze, and salt glaze is also good for paint containers.  Ceramic containers (refined pottery) also works with a proper glaze.  Glass containers were rarer during the period but were available.  Glass gives you a visual to make sure the paint hasn’t separated as well as how much paint is left.

Hot dipped tin (in the nineteenth century it would be sheet wrought iron dipped in molten tin), today tin containers are made of steel sheet and electroplated, hot dipped tin is available.  Tin makes an excellent container for holding paint while you are painting, especially a pail with a bail and a lid.


If you are going to make your own oil paint, I would suggest that you use a good quality boiled linseed oil and add some stand oil or sun thickened oil to help it flow better and dry faster.  The more pigment you add to make it opaque can also effect the shine of the paint when it dries.  You can also add calcium carbonate [whiting] to thicken light color paints but it will also remove the shine.  You can add oil based gloss varnish which will thicken, aid in drying and add a shine to the paint.

Shop or studio made liquid paints need to be stirred frequently as the heavy bodied materials can settle out, I notice this happening, particularly using iron oxide pigments, so I leave my perforated stir stick in the paint as I am using it and stir the paint every few minutes to insure a uniform consistency, color and intensity of the mixture.  Don’t ever use the paint brush to stir the paint.

It is possible to use fresh made paint, however it does benefit from aging in a tightly stoppered container.  The container on the left has too much air space, the one on the right has pebbles that raise the level to remove excess air.  Paints made with minerals that act as dryers such as burnt umber, manganese, iron and lead base will begin their reactions to polymerize the mixture chemically.  This is useful as it will help the paint dry faster and storing the paint for a period of time will enhance its drying characteristics.











March 7, 2010

Nineteenth Century Measure & Value

Filed under: Historical Material,Nautical,Of Interest,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 5:15 pm

Measurements & Valuations in the Nineteenth Century


Liquid Measure

1 fluid ounce= 29.5737 Cubic Centimeters

Gill = 4 liquid ounces

Pint = 16 liquid ounces

Quart = 32 liquid ounces

Gallon = 128 liquid ounces

Gallon = 8.3 pounds

Cup = ½ pint or 8 liquid ounces

Flagon=2 quarts

Keg=3 gallons

Firkin=¼ barrel or 8-9 gallons

Kilderkin=17-29 gallons

Rundlet=3-20 gallons

Barrel=28-31 gallons

Hogshead=52-68 gallons

Puncheon=72 gallons

Pipe=two hogsheads

Butt=110-120 gallons


Wine & Beer Measure

Anker=10 gallons

Rundlet-18 gallons

Tierce=42 gallons

Hogshead=63 gallons

Puncheon=84 gallons

Pipe or butt=126 gallons

Tun=253 gallons


Dry Measure

4 Gills=1 pint

2 pints=1 quart

2 quarts=1 pottle

2 gallons=1 peck

4 peck=1 bushel

2 bushel=1 strike

4 bushel=1 Coomb

8 bushel=1 quarter

4 quarters=1 cauldron

5 quarters=1wey

2 weys=1 last

1 dicker of leather=10 skins

1 last of hides=20 hides



Penny weight=one twentieth of a troy ounce

24 grains=1 penny weight

20 penny weight=1 ounce troy

1 ounce (troy)=31.1035 Grams

Pound=14 ounces troy



20 grains=1 scruple

3 scruples=1 dram

8 drams=1 ounce

12 ounces=1 pound



16 drams=1 ounce

1 ounce (avoirdupois) =28.3495 Grams

Pound=16 ounces avoirdupois

Stone=14 pounds

28 pounds=1 quarter

4 quarters=1 hundred weight

Hundred weight [cwt]=112 pounds

20 hundred weight=1 ton


Linear Measure

1/48th inch= hairs’ breadth

Fingers’ breadth, a measure of 2 barleycorns in length, or four laid side to side.

3 Barleycorn=1 inch

1 inch= 25.4 Millimeters

1 square inch = 6.452 Square Centimeters

1 palm=3 inches

1 hand=4 inches

1 span=8 inches

1 foot=12 inches

1 cubit=18 inches

3 feet=1 yard

39.37 inches= 1 meter

Fathom=6 feet

Rod, perch, pole=16 ½ feet

Chain=66 feet

Furlong=220 feet yards

1 mile=5280 feet

3 miles=1 league

69 ½ miles=1 degree



5 pennies=half dime (nickel after 1866)

10 pennies=1 dime

12 ½ pennies=1 bits

25 pennies or two bits=1 quarter

50 pennies=half dollar

100 pennies or 8 bits= 1 dollar [Spanish milled dollars were cut into 8 bits or ‘pieces of eight’ for ease of spending.  I believe most Spanish Milled Dollars were actually ‘Maria Teresa Dollars’ or talers from Austria, first minted in 1760 and unchanged today.]

2 ½ dollars=quarter eagle

5 dollars=half eagle

10 dollars=eagle

20 dollars=double eagle


1 £ [pound sterling]=20 shillings

1 shilling=12 pence

In the mid nineteenth century value conversion to U.S. Dollars:

1 pence=$0.0104

1 shilling=$0.125

1 pound=$2.50


A handy reference and good for settling bets.


March 6, 2010

The Painter, Gilder and Varnisher’s Companion – review

Filed under: Historical Material,Of Interest,Publications,Reviews,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 10:42 am

The Painter, Gilder & Varnisher’s Companion

By Henry Carey Baird

Philadelphia 1850

Now why on earth would I review a book that was first published 160 years ago?  Well because I can and have not chance of offending the author, which in the case of my review there shouldn’t be anything offensive.  My only regret is not having read this book 40 years ago but that wasn’t possible, yet today with modern technology [one of the few I embrace] I can read three different versions of this publication as well as many others that are relevant to my field of study.

Now it may just be me but I find that a book like this is of great importance in understanding finishing in the nineteenth century.  I have a fondness for old paint, varnish and finish receipts and a desire to recreate old finish and rediscover lost finish techniques of the past.

The book begins with the apparatus that the Painter or Gilder or Varnisher would employ in their trades with an unexpected section extolling the virtues of the newly introduced ‘flat’ varnish brush.  How the discussion is couched makes me think that this new idea was controversial and met with much opposition.  But then again change was something that happened very slowly when it came to the traditions of the various trades.  Cultural and traditional influences remain constant even as the style of furniture changes.

The dialogue on pallet knives talks of them being made from ivory, bone, horn, iron and steel and recommends that some colors like yellow will be made dingy using the iron or steel and suggests a pallet knife made of ivory to prevent contamination.

The main section of the work has to do with color and has an excellent discussion on color theory and color harmony.  This also gives a time period for when certain colors were available.  Many of the ingredients are dangerous such as lead and mercury and warnings are given for the proper handling.  The section on Diseases and Ailments of these workers gives proper precautions and actually suggest that chewing tobacco can be a benefit for those handling noxious materials.

With this edition from Gary Roberts at Toolemera Press, I can hold a copy in my hands and thumb through the pages, there is something to be said for hard copy.  And Gary has faithfully reproduced the cover of the book, so it can be used in historic situations such as living history museums and reenactments and for this I would like to add my special thanks.


March 1, 2010

Something is missing.

Filed under: Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 9:01 am

Maybe it was what I said about Milk Paint?


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