Full Chisel Blog

December 28, 2011

‘Little Shaver’ – product review

Filed under: Historical Material,Of Interest,Proper Tools,Reviews,Sharpening,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 10:26 am

Annually, my family selects names for gift exchange as well as a list of items as suggestion for gift ideas.  And this year this tool was on the top of my list.  Originally produced in the early 1900′s, it looked like a cool tool and is available from Lee Valley.

I don’t use any of my chisels or sharp knives to sharpen graphite pencils as they leave residue on the blades and is tough on a fine edge.  I have a designated small clip point knife that I use for pencil sharpening, now I can clean it up, sharpen it and keep it for other purposes.

As luck would have it I got the sharpener, thanks Travis [great nephew].  It worked right out of the box, although when I get back home to my shop I will hone the blade just a bit.  I also noticed a small casting defect [to the right of the cone], but it doesn’t effect the operation.

I first tried #2 pencils which were made to a surgical fine point and later on a 3H pencil.  To my surprise it got that very hard graphite to the same degree of sharpness.  I then tried to sharpen a tiny pencil I keep with my pocket ivory notepad and it worked.  I am impressed.

Stephen

December 22, 2011

Chisels and Gouges

Filed under: Historical Material,Of Interest,Proper Tools,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 10:41 am

 ‘Some folks carve their reputations, others just chisel and gouge.’

 

Chisels and gouges are two very important tools groups the first of which is a very common woodworking tool. A chisel as a flat blade to cut flat straight work and a gouge has a curved blade to cut curved and other shapes. Chisels are usually sharpened with a bevel on one side with the back of the chisel being perfectly flat. Some carving and turning chisels are double beveled for their particular application. Both chisels and gouges cut with the cutting edge perpendicular to the grain of the wood but the cut is much smoother if the cutting edge is held at an angle or skew to the wood grain. The direction and amount of the angle depends upon the type of wood and the grain. Cutting can also be easily accomplished on certain occasions and applications by cutting across the grain of the wood; this is especially true with gouge work. I will mention this at the beginning and will not talk about it again but never, ever strike a chisel with a metal hammer of any kind. Always use a wooden mallet to strike a wooden chisel or gouge handle.

Back Bent Chisel is a specialty chisel used mainly in woodcarving. The advantage of a bent chisel is that the bend in the blade changes the angle of attack of the cutting edge. You can get into difficult areas to deal with difficult grain and this tool can do that where other chisels cannot.

Bench Chisel is a term to describe a typical woodworking chisel used by cabinetmakers, furniture makers and others. It is of full size with a 5” blade and 5” handle and is usually a tang type but older ones do come with sockets. The blades are not too thick and the tops are beveled along the sides. The reason for the bevel is to allow the chisel to work on dovetails, with beveled sides, that is possible, if the sides are square like on mortise chisel or firmer chisels they will damage the sides of the dovetails. The bevels also lighten the chisels weight.

Butt Chisel is a smaller version of the bench chisel with a short blade and short handle. These are used for installing hardware such as butt hinges and are small enough to carry in the toolbox for work out of the shop. Some bench chisels become butt chisels after repeated sharpening.

Cabinet Chisel is another term for Bench Chisel and denotes the bevel edge wooden handled chisels in sizes: 1/8”, ¼”, 3/8”, ½”, 5/8”, ¾”, 7/8” and 1” are common and in increments up to 2”, after that they are usually considered a Slick. These are the common everyday chisel used by the cabinetmaker, carpenter, furniture maker and other woodworkers doing normal woodworking tasks.

Carving Chisel generally has a thinner blade and is sharpened to about 15º angle which is easier to use when hand carving as opposed to mallet carving.

Corner Chisel is another specialty tool that comes in small ¼” size for cabinet work to 1 ½” and larger size for building and boat construction. This tool has a blade that is formed into a right angle along its length with sockets on the large versions and tangs on the smaller ones. The tool is ground flat on the outside and the bevels are cut on the inside leading edges. The sharpening is a thicker angle for heavy construction work at about a 25º angle to prevent chipping of the blade. Small cabinet corner chisels have a finer 20º angle to square up mortises and other right angle joints. Also called a bruz.

Dogleg Chisel is a handy tool to have for working the bottom of shallow mortises and for truing up groundwork during the inlaying process. The offset or dogleg is usually in the shank just at where the blade starts to widen out. This offset allows the back of the blade to be flat keeping the cutting angle low for a smoother and easier cut.

Firmer Chisel is similar to a bench or cabinet chisel but without the bevels up each side. The blades are usually thicker and some old ones have a curved top to make the blade even stouter for heavy-duty work. Most handles are joined to the firmer with a socket to withstand the heavy mallet work associated with this robust tool. Some of the handles have a hoop around the top to prevent the head of the handle from splitting and mushrooming. The cutting edge bevel is ground to a 20º angle to withstand the heavy work, prevent the blade from chipping yet cut easily. The mass and strength of these tools withstand the heavy use to which these tools can be subject. Larger versions are also called framing chisels.

Fishtail Chisel is a lightweight chisel that should probably included in Carving Chisels but I use mine all of the time where access is limited. The chisel, a tang type has a thin shank that flairs out to the finished width at the cutting edge of the blade. The shape forms a fishtail and while it works for some applications, the shank is too flexible for some purposes. The blade is sharpened on a low 15º angle like a paring chisel, is extremely sharp and makes light cuts easily. Also called a fantail chisel.

Mortise Chisel is a stout square or rectangular blade with a thick shank and joined to the handle with a socket or tang and ferrule. The squareness of these blades produces square mortises. The stoutness of the large thick blades withstands pounding with a mallet and levering against the walls of the mortise to clean up the bottoms. Smaller mortise chisels are ground at 20º while large construction mortise chisels are ground to 25º.

Paring Chisel is a long thin usually side beveled chisel used for fine smoothing and finish work. The long thin blades are flexible and the cutting edge is sharpened to the low 15º angle to provide the smoothest of cuts. These tools are almost always with tang handles and are never struck with a mallet. The length and suppleness of these chisels are favored by patternmakers and are delightful to use.

Slick is a large chisel 2” wide and wider with a long blade and invariably has a socket with a very long handle sometimes with a pad turned onto the end. These are used to shape large construction members in building and boat construction. The pad on the handle is placed against the shoulder, which is used to force the slick through the work. The length and mass of this tool make it a tool that is relatively easy to use. Slick is also a term to describe any chisel over 2” wide.

Socket Chisel is a type of chisel that holds its handle within a socket formed on the shank of the chisel. Socket is a method of attaching the handle to the blade. A socket can be used on any type chisels and most types in one form or another are to be found with a socket. This type of chisel is usually of the heavier types capable of taking pounding on the handle. One problem with socket chisels is that when the handle breaks, most people apparently just kept hitting the socket itself mushrooming it over.

Swans neck Chisel is a special type of chisel used to smooth the bottoms of mortises or other deep holes in wood. With the curve on the end of the chisel, the blade is at the correct angle to properly smooth the bottoms of mortises. Also called a Bottoming Chisel.

Tang Chisel is another type of chisel construction in which a thin tapered part of the shank (the tang) is inserted into a handle. Tang is a method of attaching the handle to the blade. There is usually a bolster or shoulder between the tang and the blade that rest against the handle. This type of construction is usually for lighter duty chisels. The tang should be properly fit to prevent the handle from splitting. Many of these types of chisels also have metal ferrules to prevent splitting.

Turning Chisel is a flat chisel that is used specifically for turning on the lathe. I have used cabinet chisels and skew carving chisels on the lathe in a pinch but most often the tools are sharpened differently to be interchangeable and I have never used a turning tool as a bench tool.

And now for a discussion about bent chisels, commonly referred to as the Gouge. Gouges are chisels with a curved or bent cutting edge that makes curved or bent cuts or gouges in the wood. Even the slightest amount of bend qualifies as a gouge. The bevel of the gouge is usually ground on the inside or concave side of the gouge and the back is flat. An in cannel gouge has its bevel cut on the outside or convex side of the gouge and the inside is flat.

Back Bent Gouge is a gouge with a shank and a short blade that has a reverse bend in the blade and is useful for low angle work during modeling and shaping. These are usually fitted with a tang handle arrangement and are seldom struck with a mallet. An unusual tool that is handy on those occasions when this tool is the only solution for tricky grain and rounded undercuts.

Bench Gouge is a gouge to do simple hollowing work such as moldings and coves. These are light duty gouges with a tang handle. Also called cabinet gouges these may be the only gouges that many woodworkers need for simple hollowing operations.

Bowl Gouge is a short stout wide bladed gouge used for making the hollow inside of a bowl as the name implies. The blade can be straight but are usually curved along its length to fit down into the bowl. The handle is also short to accommodate working inside of bowls and trenchers. Most are socketed to withstand mallet use and the end of the handle is hooped to prevent splitting.

Cabinet Gouge is another name for the group of lighter duty Bench Gouges.

Carving Gouge is much thinner and lightweight, than other gouges and usually not as long and invariably fitted with a tang handle and sharpened to 15º angle.

Fishtail Gouge similar to the fishtail chisel this gouge is usually small and light duty. The nature of the fishtail limits the useful life of this tool. The blade keeps getting narrower as the tool is repeatedly sharpened. An advantage is that the tool can get into places its wider counterpart cannot. Also called a fantail gouge.

Firmer Gouge is a heavy-duty thick bladed tool fitted up with a socket and hoop handle to handle the repeated blows from the wooden mallet. These tools can take a lot of abuse and have application in large ship and building construction as well as tool making and mill work. The cutting edge is sharpened 20º for finer work to 25º angle for heavy-duty gouge work.

Paring Gouge is a long thin bladed gouge used for pattern making and fine carving work. Fit up with a tang handle these tools are used with hand power and are not struck with a mallet. The angle of the cutting bevel is a low 15º angle for smooth effortless cutting. Some of these tools were sharpened with the bevel on the inside, called in cannel sharpening.

Socket Gouge can be any gouge that has an iron socket formed on the shank of the blade into which a turned wooden handle is inserted. The handle has a taper on the end to precisely fit in the metal socket. This type of handle/tool connection takes the most abuse when pounding with a mallet. Unfortunately many were used without handles and struck with iron hammers and have mushroomed over. These can be restored if you have access to a forge.

Spoon Gouge is another handy tool for working inside of concave surfaces such as bowls and deep carvings. The spoon is bent along the blade in the same direction as the sweep of the curve of the gouge. This enables the tool and handle to be at the lowest angle possible. Some are light duty and have just a small spoon at the end of the shaft; others are large and have the hollow spoon shape along the entire blade. The cutting edge bevel is usually sharpened on the inside or concave side of the gouge to a suitable angle for the type of work that it is being used for. Rough out work will have a greater angle than will fine inside smoothing which needs a shallower angle to work properly.

Tang Gouge is any gouge that is attached to the handle by a sharp tapered end on the shank of the blade. Some have bolsters or shoulders, swaged on the shank to prevent the tang from working deeper into the handle splitting the wood. Many gouges with tangs also have iron or brass ferrules around the handle where the tang goes in.

Turning Gouge is almost always a long blade tang fit into a long handle. The longer the blade and handle the easier a turning gouge is to control. Like long half cylinders the turning gouge is used to rough out work on a lathe as well as doing the intricate hollows and coves of turning spindles and for roughing out faceplate work. The end is sharpened different from cabinet gouges in that the angle is much steeper angle of 30º. The tool is not usually honed, as some prefer a burr on the cutting edge of the turning gouge. The end can be ground straight across for roughing work or the cutting end can be rounded like a thumbnail for more delicate turning on an inside radius.

 

Chisel and gouge handles fall into two basic types, those for tang tools and those for socket style tools. The wood for tool handles should be of a hard, strong and stout wood that will resist splitting and breakage. Boxwood, apple wood, beech, hornbeam and maple make excellent tool handles that resist shock and splitting. Hickory, white oak, ash and elm work well especially for socket handles with ferrules and hoops. Dogwood, ebony, rosewood and other dense and strong woods can make good handles. Ferrules are cylinders of metal; iron or brass that reinforces the end of the handle where the chisel or gouge shank and tang enters the wooden handle. A hoop is an iron or brass, reinforcing ring that is placed in a rabbit turned or formed around the top of the handle where the mallet strikes the tool. As the wood is struck with the mallet it spreads out and the hoop prevents the tool handle from splitting. The shape of the handles varies but some standards have come about. Having different types of handles for different types of tools gives you a visual clue to the tool by the shape of the handle, which can facilitate picking the tool from all of those cluttering up the work bench.

 

Cabinet Handle has octagonal handles in cross section with turned rabbit for a hoop and a turned bulbous knob just before the rabbit for the ferrule of this tang mounted chisel or gouge. The cove before the bulb knob gives a place for the fingers and thumb to grip the tool and the octagonal handles give control when using a mallet.

Palm Handle is a short stubby type of handle that is a rounded mushroom shape knob into which is inserted small tang chisels or gouges. The wide topped knob spreads out the pressure of the tool to the hand and gives good lateral control because of the surface of exposure to the grip. Does not have the leverage advantage of a longer handle.

Pattern Maker Handle is similar to the Round Handle but has turned round cylinder handles but with the same bulbous knob on the end and is slightly longer. The long flat nature of the tool does not tend to roll like other chisels and gouges.

Round Handle in both single taper and double taper is a common chisel and gouge handle. While turned the style is very simple and can be for both tang or socket applications. One problem with round handles is that they tend to roll and there is nothing worse than a sharp chisel or gouge falling on the floor after rolling off the bench. A good overall handle on a tool that will be used for handwork and with a mallet.

Socket Handle is any style handle that has a turned cone, which fits, into the metal tapered socket on a tool with a socket for the handle. The fit should be tight to insure that the stresses are spread out evenly along all surfaces of the end grain of the wooden handles. Some are turned with shoulders that engage the top edge of the socket and are flush on the outside surfaces.

Tapered Handle in an octagonal cross section is my favorite tool handle. It does not roll of the bench, it is easy to control and can be used for handwork as well as light mallet work. I start with square stock and taper off the corners. I then taper off the flats toward where the tang enters the tool. It is wider at the back to disperse the force of the palm of the hand against the tool as well as provide a wide area of surface to strike with a mallet. The octagonal shape is easy to grip and provides excellent control of the tool.

Turned Handle for both socket and tang applications can have some nice curves. Turned on a lathe these handles will have swellings on the back end to provide a good hand surface as well as one that can be struck with a mallet and can have a slight swelling near the ferrule or socket for a thumb and finger rest. Decorative beads, lines, moldings and details can also be turned into the surfaces of the tool handle. Some of the older designs have quite pleasing designs, details and decorations to make them beautiful as well as functional. Turning Tool Handle is much longer than the regular chisel or gouge handle. Usually with a large ferrule to reinforce the end of the handle to the force to which it is exposed during turning the length gives a necessary leverage advantage necessary. Both longer and larger in diameter, it is shaped to fit comfortably in both hands and smooth enough to provide a good grip for control of the turning tool. The size is necessary for strength required for the constant forces of turning. A traditional flaring at the end or a knob turned on the end gives a tactile reference when picking up the tool.

Taking care of chisels and gouges should be a matter of course, always protecting the cutting edge, using only wooden or rawhide mallets, never metal hammers and keeping the blades clean, the handles in good repair and the edges very sharp. You can use a chisel roll made of leather or canvas to store your tools or you can make a drawer that keeps the tools separate. You can also make a rack on the wall of the shop or in a toolbox to hold the tools in position. If the ends of the handles become frayed with repeated mallet work, it is a good idea to file off any mushrooming of the wooden handle. Smooth over the top of the handle to insure that the mallet strikes it squarely. I prefer a round carver’s type mallet as they strike the same with every blow and do not have sharp edges that can split tool handles. Treating the handles with periodic applications of linseed oil will consolidate any frayed and dried out wood and make the tools look good. A very light coat of linseed oil on the blades will prevent rust from forming, also keeping the tool sharp and bright retards rust. When fitting up new socket handles make sure that the outside taper of the handle matches the inside taper of the socket exactly. When fitting up tang tools into handles, make sure that the square tapered mortises are exact to fit the metal tang. If the mortise is too small, the tang will split the handle when it is driven in place. I apply rosin to the tang of the chisel as well as the socket to help secure the handle in place. Keep these tools sharp and prevent the cutting edges from knocking into each other and other metal objects. Always be aware of the cutting edge of the tool and its relationship to you and you will never be accidentally cut by your sharp tools.

 

December 14, 2011

Progress of Sun-thickened Raw Linseed Oil

I started this small batch of raw linseed oil in April and it has been exposed to sunlight every day since then.  I have done several experiments with raw linseed oil all of which are covered in Shellac, Linseed Oil, & Paint – Traditional 19th Century Woodwork Finishes.

The oil started out much darker and less viscous and with the action of the sun it has lightened in color [with the chlorophyll being bleached out] and it has thickened up.  Because it is oil I let it stay outside even in the freezing weather.

The other morning [it was 17 degrees F] I noticed that the oil had clouded up, so I took a photograph of the cloudy oil.

I took the oil inside and allowed it to warm up overnight and it clarified.  Could be residual moisture in the oil that cause the turbid appearance.

I will keep it in the house in a sunny window and let it continue to thicken up.  I do open the bottle occasionally and have noticed that the odor is much milder than fresh raw linseed oil.

Stephen

 

 

 

December 12, 2011

Furnishing Louisiana, Creole and Acadian Furniture, 1735-1835

Filed under: Finishing,Furniture,Historical Material,Of Interest,Publications,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 1:08 pm

I just received this rather large publication by the Historic New Orleans Collection from John H. Lawrence, Director of Museum Programs.  The book is 9 3/8″ wide, 12 3/8″ long and 2″ thick while weighing in at 9 pounds, 538 pages and 1500 illustrations most in color.

As it will take some time to get through the written material, the color photographs of the furniture together with historical documents makes for a rather in depth look at early furniture from the Mississippi River Valley.

There were even illustrations of a few painted and grained examples with many having been stripped of their original painted finishes.  I am surprised there are not more painted and grained pieces in their collection.

The exhibit starts Feb 24, 2012 and runs through June 17, 2012.  I will be in New Orleans on April 5th through the 8th to do a lecture and workshop on traditional furniture finishes.  First time I will have been on an airplane in a dozen years, I think I will ship my tools and props so I don’t have problems with security, imagine what steel graining combs look like in a scanner?

Should be fun, never been to Louisiana.

Stephen

December 10, 2011

Unusual Characteristics of Wood

Filed under: Alchemy,Historical Material,Of Interest,Trees,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 2:08 pm

Certain woods have unusual characteristics that are not widely known.  These are characteristics that are beyond the normal everyday usage of the wood.  These also include unusual ways that trees grow as well as folklore, myth and legend associated with certain woods.  While this information is not necessary for woodworking, a craftsman should be fully informed.

Wood that grows on the south side of trees (in the northern hemisphere) is more flexible and springy that wood which grows on the north side of the tree, which is harder and denser.  Under normal growing conditions the center of the tree is closer to the north side of the tree.  Trees are sugared on the south side of the tree and sap is removed for navel stores on the south side of the tree.  Under the largest branch also produces more sap.  A large Oak tree can transpire over a ton of water (250 gallons) in a single day.

While Basswood is excellent for carving because of its uniform soft grain and its ability to deaden sound and used in musical instruments, it also can be soaked in water and compressed to about half its size, it will spring back to its original shape when it dries.  Used to make puzzles where one piece of wood is placed through another piece of wood without any trickery except its ability to be compressed and forced through another piece of wood.

Most trees grow in relation to the seasons, the sap is up in the summer and down in the winter. Satinwood however grows to a different cycle, the sap rises on the full moon and drops on the new moon.  Perhaps this is why the wood is so full of minerals that contribute to the crystalline look of this beautiful wood.  In the fall, the Ginkgo biloba, while a primitive gymnosperm from China, can loose all of its fan shaped leaves in as little as 30 minutes.

Both Ash and Walnut (which are related) have collapsible pith at the center of their branches and were used by the Native Americans to make pipe stems.  A grub was put in one end and allowed to eat its way through the soft pith to the other end.  A hot wire can easily clear the pith from the center of the branch.  Black Ash trees can be pounded while the wood is still green and this pounding loosens layers of wood used for baskets and chair seat bottoms.  The open ring porous part of the wood (springwood) is crushed and the layer of solid wood (summerwood) comes off in thin layers, which are scraped and formed into strips for weaving.

Cherry produces the sweetest fruit but the inner bark of the tree contains concentrations of strychnine and is used medicinally for sore throats, coughs and as a stimulant.  The inner bark of Willow contains salicylic acid, which at the turn of the twentieth century was used to synthesize modern aspirin.  A branch of willow will keep mold from growing in the glue pot.  The bark of Cork Oak (Quercus suber) is periodically harvested every four to seven years without harming the tree for making of all things, cork.  The best comes from Portugal; the finest quality cork comes from 2nd, 3rd and subsequent harvests.  The bark is thicker on the north side of a tree.  The root of the Spruce tree is used to flavor ‘root beer’ and is used as cordage by the Native Americans for lashing canoes and other bark utensils.  The bark from the roots of Sassafras makes a delicious tea, is a blood thinner and a tonic.  You can rub the ‘nut’ of the buckeye on joints to alleviate pain.  The shavings of Osage Orange can be used as a dye for lightwoods or textiles.

The largest tree on earth is the Giant Sequoia, the largest living thing on earth is the Aspen tree and the oldest living tree on earth is the diminutive Bristlecone Pine that can grow more than 5000 years if not accidentally cut down.  When trying to determine the age of these trees, scientists did a core sample of what they thought was the oldest tree in a stand in the West.  At 4600 years, they thought it was the oldest, so they cut down a smaller one nearby to do a ring study, that tree was over 5000 years old.

Some trees such as lodge pole pine, jack pine and limber pine requires fire to scarify the seeds for proper germination.  Controlling natural fires have caused a decline in propagation.  The aspen is a short-lived nurse tree for evergreens and for the same reasons the total number of individual examples are dwindling.  If you have seen one aspen tree you have seen them all.  Every aspen on earth are genetically identical with every other aspen.

Coppice (also called copse) is a thicket or scrub forest originating from root growth, stump sprouts and suckers.  Climax forest is old growth at its maximum maturity and called original growth, virgin forest or wildwood.  Previously logged areas that have re-grown is second growth and because of the more open growing conditions the wood will have wider rings that the old growth which competed for nutrients.  A weald is an English term for a heavily wooded area.  Arboreal, Alburnam and sylvan are terms used to describe anything relating to trees.  Sylvan or Silvan is a spirit that frequents the forest.  ‘Wood’ is an Old English term for being insane or mad.  If you are ‘out of the woods’ you are free from danger.  If someone is a ‘chip off the old block’ they resemble their parents, as does ‘that acorn didn’t fall far from the oak tree’.  If someone has ‘a chip on their shoulder’ they are ready for a confrontation.  A ‘woodenhead’ or ‘blockhead’ is a numskull.  ‘Timber’ can be used as a noun to describe growing trees and as an interjection to describe trees being cut down.  A person can ‘lumber’ along or be ‘lumbered’ with burdens.  You can ‘board’ a ship made of boards on a gangplank.  With all members ‘on board’ the ‘board’ met in the ‘boardroom’ and agreed ‘across the board’.  ‘Springboard, sideboard, buckboard, blackboard, bulletin board, dart board, dough board, cutting board, game board, dashboard, backboard, headboard, footboard, centerboard, bundling board and board like.  One can ‘leaf’ through a book or ‘needle’ an opponent.  Trees and other vascular plants produce most of the oxygen made on this planet.  Dryads are wood nymphs and Druids are ancient Celts with a fondness for oak trees.  The word ‘wood’ can mean the place where the tree grows, the very material itself or something made out of wood.  And no one ever wants to be taken to the woodshed.  How far can you walk into the forest?  Only halfway, then you are walking out of the forest.  If a tree falls in the forest and no one is there to hear it, does it make a noise?  Of course it does, it will make a physical noise or sound but not a perceived sound.  If you walk around a tree, and there is a squirrel on the other side of the tree and it remains out of site on the backside as you walk around the tree, do you walk around the squirrel or not?  ‘Knock on wood’ or ‘touch wood’ is a superstition intended to bring luck or at least ward off bad luck.  While its origins are obscure it appears that it has to do with the spirits inhabiting sacred trees such as the holly, ash or oak.

There are about 100,000 species of Hardwood commercially available in the world today.  There are about 700 species on North America and about 100 species of Conifers on this continent.

Phrases relating to wood and trees:

A real log jamb.
A walk in the woods.
As the twig is inclined so the tree is bent.
Augers well.
Barking up the wrong tree.
Can’t see the forest for the trees.
Cash on the barrelhead.
Chip of the old block.
Chip on the shoulder.
Dull as a froe.
Fall off the wagon.
Get on the bandwagon.
Going against the grain.
Hammer it out.
Knock on wood.
Lock, stock and barrel.
Neck of the woods.
Out of the woods.
Out on a limb.
Over a barrel.
Sleep like a log.
Sleep tight.
Square peg in a round hole.
Squeaky wheel gets the grease.
Stiff as a board.
That acorn didn’t fall far from the oak.
That old saw.
Top drawer
Touch wood.
Turn the table.
Walk the plank

 

Stephen

December 8, 2011

The Great Roubo Workbench Ruse Revealed

As some of you have figured out by now and as I have revealed that this classic traditional French style workbench fit in a medium flat rate shipping box, is a one twelfth scale, 1 inch equals 1 foot model.  I have built a Nicholson bench of this style in the scale model cabinet shop, so this is number 2.

I have sold this bench, but will be building another miniature project in the near future.

Stephen.

December 6, 2011

The World’s first War Photographer

Filed under: Documentation,Historical Material,Of Interest,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 11:06 am

The first photographist was an unknown itinerant American who shot a number of daguerreotypes of which 6 are in the collection of Yale University.  He was in Mexico during the Mexican War in 1846-47 and using the ‘new’ photographic process introduced from Europe by Samuel F. B. Morse, the inventor of the Morse Code.

General Wool in Saltillo, Mexico, he is on a horse just left of center, on of the few pictures taken during the Mexican War, making this obscure American the very first war photographer.

What does this have to do with Woodworking?  His camera was made of wood.  Nice hats.

Stephen

 

December 5, 2011

Book Review Cabinet Construction by J.C.S. Brough

Filed under: Historical Material,Of Interest,Publications,Reviews,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 8:58 am

Cabinet Construction by J.C.S. Brough, 1920, 1930 Reprint by Toolemera Press

Gary Roberts has brought another fine publication from the past to today’s market. While this book is later than my field of interest, I did find the book full of useful information for any woodworker.

 

One of the best parts was one section that concentrated on the backs of furniture, a subject rarely discussed. There is also a section at the end that covers examples of various furniture styles as well as hardware of various periods.

 

This book assumes that the reader has some woodworking skills as none of the basic material such as techniques are mentioned as it would have already been learned elsewhere. And being an English book the language is easy to understand and it gives names to joints that can help standardize conversations about woodworking.

 

I recommend you buy and read this book and keep it around as a handy reference.

 

Stephen

December 4, 2011

1845 Forage Cap

Filed under: Finishing,Historical Material,Of Interest,Uncategorized — Stephen Shepherd @ 8:59 am

While not necessarily a woodworking subject, I will wear this hat so it is related to woodworking, I also varnished and sanded the hat which is like furniture.  This hat is based on a Daguerreotype taken shortly after the Mexican War 1847, this volunteer wears the standard forage cap used by the United States military during that time period.

I had a friend Tracy Mutter make me a black canvas hat to my head size.

I then covered it with several coats of Asphaltum Varnish [50% asphaltum, 50% spar varnish] and after 4 coats I lightly sanded the hat between coats.  This is the first time I have ever sanded a piece of clothing on purpose. I put more coats on the bill to make it into patent leather, like the original.  It is not easy painting a black hat black, the first coat was slightly darker [blacker] than the cloth and in color corrected lighting I could see the difference.  Subsequent coats were easier as the fresh varnish was shiny than the previous coats.

I used thin vegetable tanned leather to make the adjustable chin strap.  It was sewn with linen thread, dyed black and secured with two black horn buttons.  I thought about using some old brass Engineers buttons but used the horn instead.

The varnish greatly stiffened the hat and I think it is probably waterproof, will wait for a rain storm to give it a try.

Stephen

 

 

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